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英語寫作中英文逗號、冒號還有分號的使用規范

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  英語寫作中該如何正確地使用標點符號,其實很多人都不太清楚。今天我們就系統地來了解下,英文中逗號、冒號還有分號的使用規范。

  如何使用逗號(Comma)

  在大部分的寫作中,逗號是最常被使用的標點符號。但因為逗號的使用場景和使用要求最多,因此許多人會對如何正確使用感到困惑,以下是逗號的幾點重要功能,以及適當的使用時機。

  羅列事物或短語時:

  I bought bread, cheese, and pickles at the grocery store.

  需要分隔兩個獨立的較長從句,并使用連接詞連接時:

  Astronomers have known about the positions of stars for centuries, but they didn’t understand that the earth revolves around the sun.

  在介紹性短句的后面:

  In preparation for the next convention, the representatives studied up on the most important issues.

  當需要區分附加說明部分的句子(parenthetical phrase),或要分隔插入語(interrupter)時:

  All doctors, if they care about their patients, are concerned with good office hygiene.

  逗號的常見錯誤使用案例

  Comma splice 不要在未使用連接詞的情況下,使用逗號分隔兩個獨立的從句

  錯誤范例: Thousands of protesters showed up on the streets, they were shouting and carrying large posters.

  正確范例: Thousands of protesters showed up on the streets; they were shouting and carrying large posters.

  Combining lengthy phrases 在復合句中使用逗號或用逗號來分隔短句會造成讀者的困惑,這種情況應使用分號。

  錯誤范例: Some useful subjects are English, which is an international language, math, which is used in all domains of sciences and social sciences, and philosophy, which underpins many other areas of study.

  正確范例: Some useful subjects are English, which is an international language; math, which is used in all sciences and social sciences; and philosophy, which underpins many other areas of study.

 

  如何使用冒號(Colon)

  冒號來條列下文,并告訴讀者 “Here’s what I mean.”。通常在英文寫作中,冒號不常被使用,除非您有許多內容需要列舉,冒號的使用準則較為嚴謹,但也相對容易被記住。

  介紹一個或多個項目:

  Humans use five major senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch.

  分隔兩個獨立從句,第二個從句用來敘述、說明、改寫或延伸第一個從句:

  Martha realized that her worst fear was coming true: her son was being sent to war.

  (*冒號后用獨立的從句解釋 Martha’s fear)

  商業書信或正式信件開頭問候語:

  To the Central Valley Committee Chairman:

  其他冒號使用準則

  冒號后的第一個字母不要大寫,除非是專有名詞, is part of a quote, or is the first in a series of sentences:

  錯誤范例: I have three desires: To eat, sleep, and work.

  正確范例 : I have three desires: to eat, sleep, and work.

  當引號內包含多個句子,許多作者會傾向使用冒號而非逗號來引出內容:

  In Chapter 3, the author explains his theory: “Dogs have dreams, but they don’t dream as humans do. Their dreams reflect a primal desire for pleasure, whereas humans are preoccupied with the ego and self-image. This is equally true in wakefulness and sleep.”

  接在冒號之后的內容不一定要是完整的句子,可以是單詞或短語:

  There is one mantra that can sum up our position towards climate change: urgent action.

  常見冒號錯誤

  分隔平等并且無相關的兩個從句:

  錯誤范例: Sarah and her friends loved spending time on the mountain : nature always held a special meaning for them.

  正確范例: Sarah and her friends loved spending time on the mountain ; nature always held a special meaning for them.

  (*若兩個從句完全無相關,則應使用句號;若第二個從句和第一個從句有某種程度相關,并且并非用來陳述、說明或改寫第一個子句,則使用分號分隔)

 

  如何使用分號(Semicolon)

  分號用來分隔兩個獨立的概念(兩個獨立的從句),但這兩個句子是有相關性的。當陳列復雜的概念或短語,并且句中包含逗號時,適合使用分號來分隔。分號擁有逗號的功能,但包含更多意思,亦有冒號的功能。

  在句中加入兩個或多個概念,而這些概念互為平等時:

  The universe has always called to human beings; there could be no more final frontier than space.

  加入兩個用連接副詞或轉折片語連接的獨立從句:

  Sam thought David was inviting him to the picnic to enjoy a nice day out; as it turned out, David was planning a surprise birthday party.

  陳列許多或一系列不同的項目,項目中包含逗號時,或者項目相對長且性質較復雜:

  Our family members came all the way from Denver, Colorado; Rochester, Minnesota; and even Paris, France.

  使用對等連接詞連接兩個獨立從句(若兩個從句已使用逗號分隔),或者當兩個從句較長時:

  My main research objective is to isolate the cause of the disease, as well as to contribute to the existing literature; for this will bring an end to starvation across the continent, create new study designs related to epidemiology, and change the very paradigm of my research field.

  應使用分號而非逗號的情況

  錯誤范例: The specimens were treated properly, however, they were not stored properly.

  正確范例: The specimens were treated properly; however, they were not stored properly.

  *副詞“however”表示的是連接兩個獨立的從句; 不要用逗號去連接兩個不包含并列連詞(and, but, or, nor 等等)的獨立從句。

  錯誤范例: The sun is wonderful: it produces light, which plants need to survive, it gives us warmth, which is useful for most life, and it makes a sad day happier, which is obviously a positive trait!

  正確范例: The sun is wonderful: it produces light, which plants need to survive; it gives us warmth, which is useful for most life; and it makes a sad day happier, which is obviously a positive trait!

  *若只使用逗號,則無法清楚的表明陳列的項目是什么。因此,要善用冒號用來分開包含逗號的項目。


 

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